A Renaissance: Furfural for Rocket Fuel
Indian researchers  investigated furfuryl alcohol ("FA", a furfural derivative) blends with ionic liquids ("ILs") as a basis for an eco-friendly rocket fuel. ILs are a suitable alternative to replace toxic rocket fuels like hydrazine, because they "fulfill most of the desirable properties such as negligible vapor pressure, low ignition delay, high energy density, low toxicity, stability over wide temperature range and it is also hydrolytically stable". The researchers also report enhancements of the hypergolic fuel properties by the "addition of nanomaterial."
We have previously reported on use of FA in hypergolic propellants like Furaline, the 1950s rocket fuel that was also used to booster rockets of the first interceptor jets or Fantol, the hypergolic starter fuel, which was already used for the German Enzian and Schmetterling missiles towards the end of the 2nd World War.
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